Why Working From Home Makes More Sense Than Ever: Lessons From The Lockdown

Working from home isn't for everyone. But the coronavirus lockdown has taught us valuable lessons ... [+] about how we live and work.

© 2020 Bloomberg Finance LP

Seven months into the global coronavirus crisis, those of us lucky enough to still have jobs have seen huge changes to the way we work. In the U.K., almost half the working population has done at least some work from home during lockdown, after government guidance issued in March advised people to work remotely.

That guidance was cancelled in May. At the end of August, when it appeared that people were not returning to the office of their own accord, the government began trying to encourage people to do so. Britain’s newspaper columnists, apparently eager to reinforce government messaging, went as far as to claim that commuting to the office is actually good for you. Corporations got in on the act, putting out advertisements awkwardly exalting the delights of the conventional workplace.

Since then, coronavirus cases have once again risen sharply, and the government in England has quietly shelved the back-to-the-office agenda. In neighboring Wales, the devolved Welsh Government has gone one step further, explicitly stating: “The U.K. Government instruction for everyone to go back to the office is not one we are repeating in Wales.”

The current respite in England, however long it lasts, should provide space for reflection: as recently as June, business leaders and politicians were heralding “a new normal” for the way Britons work, trumpeting the many environmental and health benefits associated with a reduction in commuting. According to some estimates, cutting just one day per week from an average British commute could save almost 380 kilograms (838 pounds) of carbon emissions a year—the equivalent of a flight from London to Istanbul. In a systematic review of studies on working from home, researchers found that remote working resulted in reduced energy use in 67% of cases compared with working from the office, with the main source of those savings coming from a reduction in commutes. Indeed, the country’s key advisory body on climate policy has recommended that fostering remote working should be an integral part of government policy.

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Why Working From Home Makes More Sense Than Ever: Lessons From The Lockdown

Working from home isn't for everyone. But the coronavirus lockdown has taught us valuable lessons ... [+] about how we live and work.

© 2020 Bloomberg Finance LP

Seven months into the global coronavirus crisis, those of us lucky enough to still have jobs have seen huge changes to the way we work. In the U.K., almost half the working population has done at least some work from home during lockdown, after government guidance issued in March advised people to work remotely.

That guidance was cancelled in May. At the end of August, when it appeared that people were not returning to the office of their own accord, the government began trying to encourage people to do so. Britain’s newspaper columnists, apparently eager to reinforce government messaging, went as far as to claim that commuting to the office is actually good for you. Corporations got in on the act, putting out advertisements awkwardly exalting the delights of the conventional workplace.

Since then, coronavirus cases have once again risen sharply, and the government in England has quietly shelved the back-to-the-office agenda. In neighboring Wales, the devolved Welsh Government has gone one step further, explicitly stating: “The U.K. Government instruction for everyone to go back to the office is not one we are repeating in Wales.”

The current respite in England, however long it lasts, should provide space for reflection: as recently as June, business leaders and politicians were heralding “a new normal” for the way Britons work, trumpeting the many environmental and health benefits associated with a reduction in commuting. According to some estimates, cutting just one day per week from an average British commute could save almost 380 kilograms (838 pounds) of carbon emissions a year—the equivalent of a flight from London to Istanbul. In a systematic review of studies on working from home, researchers found that remote working resulted in reduced energy use in 67% of cases compared with working from the office, with the main source of those savings coming from a reduction in commutes. Indeed, the country’s key advisory body on climate policy has recommended that fostering remote working should be an integral part of government policy.

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Most plastic will never be recycled – and the manufacturers couldn’t care less | Arwa Mahdawi

Plastic recycling is a scam. You diligently sort your rubbish, you dutifully wash your plastic containers, then everything gets tossed in a landfill or thrown in the ocean anyway. OK, maybe not everything – but the vast majority of it. According to one analysis, only 9% of all plastic ever made has likely been recycled. Here’s the kicker: the companies making all that plastic have spent millions on advertising campaigns lecturing us about recycling while knowing full well that most plastic will never be recycled.

A new investigation by National Public Radio (NPR) and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) reports that the large oil and gas companies that manufacture plastics have known for decades that recycling plastic was unlikely to ever happen on a broad scale because of the high costs involved. “They were not interested in putting any real money or effort into recycling because they wanted to sell virgin material,” Larry Thomas, former president of one of the plastic industry’s most powerful trade groups, told NPR. There is a lot more money to be made in selling new plastic than reusing the old stuff. But, in order to keep selling new plastic, the industry had to clean up its wasteful image. “If the public thinks that recycling is working, then they are not going to be as concerned about the environment,” Thomas noted. And so a huge amount of resources were diverted into intricate “sustainability theatre”.

Multinationals misleading people for profit? Hold the front page! While the plastics industry’s greenwashing will come as no surprise to anyone, the extent of the deception alleged in NPR’s investigation is truly shocking. (I should state for the record that an industry representative interviewed by NPR contested the idea that the public was intentionally misled, although he does “understand the scepticism”.)

The subterfuge around recycling plastic is also an important reminder of just how cynically and successfully big companies have shifted the burden of combating the climate crisis on to individuals. This might be best encapsulated in a famous ad campaign that aired in the US during the 1970s with the slogan “People Start Pollution. People can stop it.” The campaign was created by a non-profit group called Keep America Beautiful, which happened to be heavily funded by beverage and packaging companies with a vested interest in convincing people that they were the ones to blame for a polluted planet, not capitalism.

Perhaps one of the most effective bits of propaganda that big business has come up with to shift the burden of combating the climate crisis on to individuals is the idea of the “carbon footprint”. BP popularised the term in the early noughties, in what has been called one of the most “successful, deceptive PR campaigns maybe ever”. While oil companies were telling us to fret about our carbon usage they were doing whatever the hell they liked: 20 fossil fuel companies can be directly linked to more than one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions, an analysis by leading climate researchers found last year. Chevron, Exxon, BP and Shell are behind more than 10% of the world’s climate emissions since 1965 – but we have been successfully convinced that people start pollution and people can stop it. That if we just fly less and recycle more the planet will be OK. To some degree that is right: there must be a level of personal responsibility when it comes to the climate emergency. We all have to do our part. But individual action is a tiny drop in a heavily polluted ocean; we need systemic change to make a real difference. And, more than anything, we need to change what we value. What frustrates me most about BP’s “carbon footprint” propaganda is how clever it is. There is so much human ingenuity in the world, but it is all directed towards the wrong things.

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5 Illuminating Questions With Ed Dow, CEO Solar Therapeutics Cannabis

Please Click on the photograph to see the fun interview!

Ed Dow CEO

Photo Courtesy: Solar Therapeutics

Based in Somerset, MA. Solar Therapeutics (Solar) is a 67,000 square foot marijuana cultivation facility coupled with on-site and off-site dispensary storefronts that supply both medical and recreational cannabis products. Solar is organized as a MA. domestic for-profit corporation and has secured a Certificate of Registration from the MA. Cannabis Control Commission to operate in the Commonwealth. Developed behind the mantra Elevated. By Design™, Solar is unlike any cannabis manufacturing facility in America. Its key differentiators are its production architecture, which is centered around the facility’s innovative design that utilizes green infrastructure and microgrid assets comprising a combination of solar arrays and high-efficiency combined-heat & power generation units. These green concepts enable Solar to produce sustainable cannabis both by lowering its overall energy profile as well as by generating all of its own clean power. While initial facility design lowered Solar’s energy profile by over 40%, the microgrid assets help to further reduce the remaining emissions by at least 60%, with a goal to offset completely. Learn more at www.solarthera.com

Going and Growing Off-Grid

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Peak Oil Demand! Again?

Your next car?

NurPhoto via Getty Images

Amid stubbornly low prices and lackluster demand we’re now seeing, on cue, a new round of predictions that oil demand has already or is about to peak (including even scenarios published by BP). These cannot be dismissed out of hand — as the peak oil supply arguments could, inasmuch as they were either based on bad math or represented assumptions that the industry couldn’t continue overcoming its age-old problems like depletion. (See my book The Peak Oil Scare if you want the full treatment.)

Now, the news is highlighting various predictions that the pandemic will accelerate the point at which global oil demand peaks, which is certainly much more sexy than business as usual. When groups like Greenpeace or the Sierra Club predict or advocate for peak oil demand, it doesn’t make much news: dog bites man. But, as the newspeople say, when man bites dog it is news. Thus, when oil company execs seem to believe peak oil demand is near, you get headlines like, “BP Says the Era of Oil Demand-Growth is Over,” The Guardian newspaper proclaiming that “Even the Oil Giants Can Now Foresee the End of the Oil Age,” and Reuters in July: “End game for oil? OPEC prepares for an age of dwindling demand.

Anyone who is familiar with the oil industry knows that a peak in oil production has been predicted many times throughout the decades, never to come true (or deter future predictions of same). But few realize that the end of the industry has been repeatedly predicted as well, including both the demise of an old-fashioned business model, but also replacement of petroleum by newer, better technologies or fuels.

Until the 1970s, few saw an end to the oil business. The automobile boom created a seemingly insatiable demand for oil, one which has only slowed when prices rose and/or economic growth stalled, neither of which has ever proved permanent. Yet there have been three particular apocalyptic threads put forward for the oil industry: the industry would spiral into decline, demand would peak, and/or a new fuel or technology would displace petroleum. 

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Oil Prices Stay Anemic As Fears Of Endless Covid Hit Demand Forecasts

Drivers wanted.

© 2020 Bloomberg Finance LP

After two weeks of back to back losses, oil prices continue to decline, a sign that the bears have a tight grip on the market. Dropping below the psychological $40 mark has traders on Wall Street wondering how deep the price decline could go as fears about a coming second wave of Covid-19 grow.

There are two clear forces at work in the price decline and they both relate to the oil supply-demand balance forecasts.  

On the demand side, the market is at much better levels since the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic and "Black April." But one thing is clear—demand has not recovered to the extent that the market had hoped for, and demand forecasts remain flat in the coming months. 

Global oil demand still sits below 90 percent of the pre-pandemic level of 100 million barrels a day, and the outlook is not great for the refined products sector. That’s especially true for aviation fuel, which could take years to recover due to the lack of international travel. But the outlook for gasoline demand after the “summer driving” season closed on Labor Day is also weak.  

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World fails to meet a single target to stop destruction of nature – UN report

The world has failed to meet a single target to stem the destruction of wildlife and life-sustaining ecosystems in the last decade, according to a devastating new report from the UN on the state of nature.

From tackling pollution to protecting coral reefs, the international community did not fully achieve any of the 20 Aichi biodiversity targets agreed in Japan in 2010 to slow the loss of the natural world. It is the second consecutive decade that governments have failed to meet targets.

The Global Biodiversity Outlook 5, published before a key UN summit on the issue later this month, found that despite progress in some areas, natural habitats have continued to disappear, vast numbers of species remain threatened by extinction from human activities, and $500bn (£388bn) of environmentally damaging government subsidies have not been eliminated.

Six targets have been partially achieved, including those on protected areas and invasive species. While governments did not manage to protect 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10% of marine habitats, 44% of vital biodiverse areas are now under protection, an increase from 29% in 2000. About 200 successful eradications of invasive species on islands have also taken place.

The UN said the natural world was deteriorating and failure to act could undermine the goals of the Paris agreement on the climate crisis and the sustainable development goals.

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EU Proposes To Raise 2030 Climate Target To 55%

EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen

Getty Images

The European Commission today adopted a proposal to raise the European Union’s 2030 emissions reduction target from 40% to 55%.

The Commission’s proposal, which will be officially put forward to the European Parliament tomorrow during President Ursula von der Leyen’s State of the European Union speech, was adopted today the 27 EU commissioners in the bloc’s executive.

Last week the European Parliament’s environment committee adopted a position calling for the target to be raised further, to 60%. Several EU member states, such as France, support raising the 2030 target. But Eastern EU countries, led by Poland, are opposed to raising the target and say 40% is already very ambitious.

Businesses are divided on the issue. Eurochambers, the umbrella organization of European chambers of commerce, opposes raising the target and says the 40% target is already “the most ambitious climate policy in place” in the world. “The interests of both the business and consumer communities were overlooked by that target change,” the organization said in a statement.

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Wildfires Don’t Stop At The Canadian Border - Debunking The Latest Twitter Myth

There are days when the climate change myths and narratives by segments of the population are sad, scary, and amusing at the same time. This week happens to be one of them. You have people saying that cool days or seasonal transition refutes climate change. Of course, we know that a day or week of cool weather says nothing about a global warming in the same way that one hit or week-long hitting streak by a baseball player says nothing about his career batting average. However, the most bizarre myth this week came from people on social media claiming that wildfires conveniently stopped at the Canadian border. Clearly, the map that I generated from the NOAA Hazard Mapping System (below) for September 14th, 2020 shows otherwise. Let me explain what is going on with the latest foolishness on Twitter.

Fire and smoke activity on September 14th in Canada and the U.S.

NOAA

This week numerous colleagues were tweeting into the “social media wilderness” refuting baseless claims about fires at the border. Apparently maps like the one below were being shared with questions like, “Why does climate change stop at the border? “ People ranging from Hollywood actors to medical doctors got on the geographically-illiterate bandwagon. Though I am the director of the University of Georgia’s Atmospheric Sciences Program, my tenured home is the Department of Geography. I immediately recognized the problem and so did my colleague Professor Katharine Hayhoe of Texas Tech University.

The fires seem to stop at the border because of the dataset being used and the particular time ... [+] frame.

K. Hayhoe via Twitter

Hayhoe is one of the top climate scientists in the world and a frequent slayer of climate zombie theories that slog around in social media. She tweeted in response to the ridiculous Tweets about the map, “The latest disinformation circling the twittersphere asks why the impacts of climate change appear to stop at the Canadian border. The answer is simple: because US maps only show US data.” While her response was a “Duh” for most of us, the toxic mix of ideology, climate change denial, and lack of familiarity with geospatial data created this firestorm (pun-intended). I would also add that cherry-picked days or time frames can also present a perception of minimal activity in Canada or the U.S at specific times.

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Drought, plague, fire: the apocalypse feels nigh. Yet we have tools to stop it | Art Cullen

As the west coast burns into an orange hellscape you have to wonder if those preaching the end of time aren’t on to something. The people smart enough to make a cellphone have been warning that we have no more than a decade to tamp down the climate crisis. Other wise men and women think we don’t even have that much time. We should listen.

People have been preaching the end of time since the beginning of time. The whole story got laid down in the Book of Revelation. Being raised Catholic, we did not read the Bible that much and were casually advised by the nuns to not wade too deep in that chapter. Concentrate on Love Thy Neighbor because Ye Shall Not Know the Hour or Day.

I heard about pestilence and plague, drought and disaster, epic conflict between good and evil, something about an antichrist, and that this will lead us to make a choice.

So far, my choice has been to drive an electric car, and enthuse about wind turbines plugged into a smart grid that does not exist but could in five years. I have my eye out for the antichrist in the meantime.

Monsignor Ivis warned us in the 1960s that the good folks who fled the midwest would be coming back to lay in a few goats in South Dakota once California succumbed to fire and fell into the ocean. What was he reading back then?

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Young climate activists start own climate talks after Cop26 delay

Young climate activists have begun a parallel process to the UN climate crisis talks, in frustration at the lack of progress they perceive in world governments’ efforts to address the emergency.

Crunch negotiations aimed at fulfilling the Paris climate agreement, called Cop26, were to be hosted by the UK this November, but have been delayed by the coronavirus crisis. Activists, participants and observers have told the Guardian they are concerned at a lack of progress so far.

The UK government has said little in public since the launch in February, before widespread lockdowns hit, other than to agree a postponement with the UN. The rescheduled Cop26 will take place next November, but the hosts face an uphill struggle to bring countries grappling with the Covid crisis to agree stiffer targets on greenhouse gas emissions.

While public progress on the postponed Cop26 has been meagre, young activists in Fridays for Future, the movement sparked by Greta Thunberg’s school strikes, are pushing ahead with their own online event this November, called Mock Cop26.

They are inviting young people to “fill the void of the postponed Cop26 with a big, inclusive online Mock Cop”. The event will be run by young climate activists, aiming to get between three and five delegates from as many countries as possible, with a focus on the global south – to contrast with what they see as the dominance of developed countries in the UN negotiations.

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'I don't think science knows': Trump denies climate change link to wildfires – video

The US president is urged to recognise the changing climate and what it means to forests, during a briefing on the wildfires in California on Monday. Trump interrupts an official, Wade Crowfoot, the secretary of California’s Natural Resources Agency, to argue the climate 'will start getting cooler, you just watch'. Crowfoot responds: 'I wish science agreed with you.' To which Trump retorts: 'I don’t think science knows actually'

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'People thought I was too young to protest': the rise of student activism

In June, Simukai Chigudu stepped up on a plinth in front of thousands of people blocking the streets outside Oriel College in Oxford. The associate professor of African politics addressed the crowds inspired by Black Lives Matter and the anti-racism protests sweeping across the UK and around the world, catalysed by the killing of yet another black man at the hands of police in the US.

Chigudu told the crowds that, yes, he was angry – how could he not be? He is one of just an estimated seven black professors employed by the University of Oxford, an institution that has faced years of questioning over diversity and its treatment of students and staff of colour.

As a postgraduate student five years ago, he was one of the founding members of Rhodes Must Fall in Oxford, a major student-led protest arguing for the decolonisation of Oxford and calling for the removal of the statue of Victorian imperialist Cecil Rhodes, which stands outside Oriel College.

In early June, the world watched as protesters in Bristol knocked down the statue of slave trader Edward Colston. The energy spread to Oxford, sparking a resurgence of the campaign to bring down Rhodes.

“When I stood up to speak and I was surveying the crowd, I could see the different eyes being cast on me. I saw a lot of people who didn’t have much to do with the university. It felt like there was this convergence of people, that an anti-racism project has to be far-reaching,” he says.

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Facebook and Google announce plans to become carbon neutral

Facebook and Google are becoming carbon neutral businesses, joining competitors Apple and Microsoft in committing to put no excess carbon into the atmosphere, both companies have independently announced.

But the details of the two companies’ ambitions differs greatly. At Google, which first committed to going carbon neutral in 2007, the announcement sees the company declaring success in retroactively offsetting all carbon it has ever emitted, since its foundation in 1998. It has also committed to being powered exclusively by renewable energy by 2030.

If that sounds familiar, it’s because it is: in 2017, Google became a “net-zero” company, buying renewable energy to match its energy usage, but was unable to fully commit to eliminating carbon-emitting generation entirely.

It’s that latter target that Facebook says it will now meet this year, when the company will become 100% supported by renewable energy. Facebook has also announced a further goal for itself, committing to net-zero emissions for its entire “value chain” by 2030, including its suppliers and users.

“Over the next decade, Facebook will work to reduce carbon emissions from our operations and value chain,” the company said in a blogpost, “including by working with suppliers on their own goals, helping the development of new carbon removal technologies and making our facilities as efficient as possible.”

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Scott Morrison's power plan is nothing but a gas-fuelled calamity | Katharine Murphy

It really is remarkable, to have lived through the bushfire season at the start of this year, and emerge from that as a political leader stronger in your conviction that the answer is locking in more fossil fuels, for longer.

Mind-boggling, in truth.

But this is the point we’ve now arrived at. Scott Morrison’s gas-led recovery right now remains more like a plan for a plan than a concrete set of propositions. But that will change in the October budget, and the prime minister used a speech on Tuesday to make sure everybody understood that’s where he was heading.

Let’s be clear about why we have arrived here. We are here because Morrison’s corporate advisers, with backgrounds in the fossil fuel industry, are pushing for precisely this outcome.

The prime minister was refreshingly clear in his attribution on Tuesday. A key voice, he said, had been Andrew Liveris, a former Dow Chemical executive and current Saudi Aramco board member, who “sat down with me at Kirribilli” and said if “you want to change manufacturing in this country, you’ve got to deal with gas”.

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New Zealand minister calls for finance sector to disclose climate crisis risks in world first

New Zealand’s left-leaning Green party said it would require the financial sector to make annual disclosures about the impact of the climate crisis on their business, if it once again formed a government after October’s election. The policy would be a world-first, said James Shaw, the climate change minister and co-leader of the party.

“Australia, Canada, [the] UK, France, Japan, and the European Union are all working towards some form of climate risk reporting for companies,” said Shaw in a statement. “But New Zealand is moving ahead of them by making disclosures about climate risk mandatory across the financial system.”

Businesses covered by the requirements would have to make annual disclosures or explain why they had not done so. It is a model based on the taskforce on climate-related financial disclosures framework – formed by the international financial stability board – which is widely acknowledged as international best practice, he said.

About 200 organisations will be required to disclose their exposure to climate risk, Shaw said, including large crown financial institutions, such as the country’s accident compensation scheme and the national superannuation fund.

Firms covered by the requirements would have to make annual disclosures covering governance arrangements, risk management and strategies for mitigating any climate change impacts, said Shaw. If they were unable to disclose, they would have to explain why.

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Nikola Rebuts Short-Seller’s Accusations, Says It ‘Proactively’ Contacted SEC On The Matter

A hydrogen-powered Nikola Two semi hauls beer for Anheuser-Busch in a test run in St. Louis in late ... [+] 2019.

Nikola Motor

(Updates that company says it “proactively” contacted the SEC in third paragraph.)

Nikola Corp., stung by accusations of fraud and misrepresentation by an analyst with a short position in its shares, released a detailed rebuttal today refuting his report which the company says was timed to benefit the author’s bet the hydrogen truckmaker’s stock would fall. Nikola also said it contacted the Securities and Exchange Commission over the matter.

Describing itself as an “early-stage growth company,” Nikola says it’s undergone “extensive due diligence processes” by numerous industrial companies it’s partnered with, including Bosch, Hanwha Group, CNH CNHI Industrial and General Motors, and financial backers ValueAct Capital and VectolQ Acquisition Corp., the company it merged with to go public in June. The company calls the report by Hindenburg Research “false and defamatory.”

Additionally, Nikola said in a follow-on statement that its legal counsel “proactively contacted and briefed” the SEC regarding its concerns over the report on Sept. 11. “Nikola welcomes the SEC’s involvement in this matter.”

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Nikola Rebuts Short-Seller’s Accusations, Says It ‘Proactively’ Contacted SEC On The Matter

A hydrogen-powered Nikola Two semi hauls beer for Anheuser-Busch in a test run in St. Louis in late ... [+] 2019.

Nikola Motor

(Updates that company says it “proactively” contacted the SEC in third paragraph.)

Nikola Corp., stung by accusations of fraud and misrepresentation by an analyst with a short position in its shares, released a detailed rebuttal today refuting his report which the company says was timed to benefit the author’s bet the hydrogen truckmaker’s stock would fall. Nikola also said it contacted the Securities and Exchange Commission over the matter.

Describing itself as an “early-stage growth company,” Nikola says it’s undergone “extensive due diligence processes” by numerous industrial companies it’s partnered with, including Bosch, Hanwha Group, CNH CNHI Industrial and General Motors, and financial backers ValueAct Capital and VectolQ Acquisition Corp., the company it merged with to go public in June. The company calls the report by Hindenburg Research “false and defamatory.”

Additionally, Nikola said in a follow-on statement that its legal counsel “proactively contacted and briefed” the SEC regarding its concerns over the report on Sept. 11. “Nikola welcomes the SEC’s involvement in this matter.”

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This New Web App Will Help Keep Food On The Table As Water Supplies Dwindle

Written by Maurice Hall, Associate VP of Ecosystems at EDF.

OpenET is a new web application that uses satellite imagery to spark innovation in water management ... [+] in 17 western states.

getty

Imagine being a CEO without a clear picture of one of your company’s most important raw materials. This is the situation currently facing water managers and farmers across the western United States, with one additional complication: In many cases, water supplies are becoming scarcer as a result of more severe droughts supercharged by climate change. The future of communities, agriculture and wildlife hang in the balance.

In the western United States, crops and natural landscapes consume the greatest portion of water supplies. However, tracking that consumption is surprisingly complex and expensive, resulting in a major gap in the data water managers need to balance water supplies and water demands.

A new web application announced today called OpenET aims to fill this gap for farmers and water managers to build more resilient water supplies across the West and ensure a more secure food supply for our entire country.

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Sorry Oil Companies, India Seen Hitting Peak Oil Use Soon

An Indian oil rig seen during dusk near the Kakinada shore, Andhra Pradesh, India.

getty

India is approaching “peak oil”. No, not the kind made popular in the run up to the Iraq War of 2002, but the kind that suggests India oil demand will level off then fall as it follows in the footsteps of developed countries slowly reducing their dependence on fossil fuels for power.

India’s Bharat Petroleum Corporation, also known as BP, said in its annual energy outlook that Indian (and global) demand for crude may never return to pre-pandemic levels.

India’s oil demand is expected to start plateauing in 2025 after rising to 6 million barrels per day from 5 mbd in 2018 under BP’s two scenarios named ‘Rapid’ and ‘Net Zero’.

By 2050, Indian demand for oil should then fall back to 5 mbd on the high end and 2 mbd if India has a solid non-fossil fuels energy policy in place that has replaced oil and gas in its auto fleet, and as a baseload for utility plants.

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